Ph.D. architecture, docent, Associate Professor of Design department, Union of architects of Russia and ISES silver member Pavel A. Kazantsev, Design department of Architectural institute FENTU, Vladivostok, Russia

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Article from Italian ECO journal

The weather conditions of south part of Russian Far East is not compare with the mild climate of Japan or Europe, but sun heating in our southern latitude is enough to reduce the heating expenses on 50% or more, even during a days of Siberian cold. Frosty days with daylight temperature 12 – 15 C (some days -20-24C) below zero and north wind 8 – 12 m/s we can observe in the Vladivostok’s neighborhood during two – two and half months. But in consequence of winter monsoon climate peculiarities our region wallows in “free of charge” sun heating at the same time. 300 sunny days during a year is usually situation for our region.

As the monsoon wind change its directions two times in year, the natives of Usury region usually build two types of village - summer and winter - on the different parts of relief sites. Long before our days it was obviously for natives that southern part of the hills is more comfortable in winter. And north part of the hills will be a safe protection from humid and foggy sea wind on summer. Forms of dwellings, methods of winter heating and summer aeration were attentively choosing.

Russian history of mountainous and wooded (taiga) Usury region continue only one hundred and half - two hundred years. Russians, Ukrainians and Byelorussians, coming here from European part of Russian empire in 1800 -1860, did not study the natives building traditions. Settlers build new houses as their ancestors built on East Europe plains hundred years ago. The master plans of Vladivostok and other Russian cities were designed as classical block of houses plan with streets oriented on the main parts of horizon. So such streets became wind tunnels crossing the hills, with continuous uniform buildings of all - southern and northern – relief parts. The situation was aggravated by multistory uniform dwellings (five – nine story “boxes”) appearing in 1960 – 1970, when Soviet government aspire to provide new settlers the minimum price flats. Central design institutes from Moscow and Leningrad (St. Petersburg) had not full and detail information’s about local climatic conditions. For economize building materials they designed building walls without sufficient heat insulation, and place such buildings on open to all winds peaks of the hills to minimize distance from city center and harbor. 40% of living rooms in such houses as a rule were opening to north part of horizon without sun. In winter conditions air temperature in such living rooms is not exceed +14C.


So, the problem decided by centralize heating of all dwellings from central heat power stations, burn down thousands tons of Siberian coal and black mineral oil. Now the citizens of such districts try to defend their yards from wind to plant the trees, add walls insulation of their flats and turn open balconies into likeness of winter gardens. We must understand that Russia development peculiarities and traditions as a country with enormous resources of oil, gas and coal are suppress (restrain) the development of native sustainable design and solar energy technologies for dwelling. Usually people in charge think that the heating problems of residential area of Far Eastern and East Siberian cities can be decided to give the regions more Siberian oil and especially Sakhalin gas in future. The large scale projects of Pacific Ocean oil and gas pipe-lines are very remunerative for state and private companies as a result of today’s higher price of energy raw materials.

So it is out of the question to propose the national state policy of the sustainable design development for Russian Far East region now. We can say today about first signs of private builder’s interests to solar technology only. .

Collide with monthly growth prices of energy raw materials and hot water service people aspire to find independence from large-scale companies and dwelling service (communal) structures turn round to “free of charge” sun shine. Solar water collectors from China and German are in demand among 5-7% of private dwelling owners in Vladivostok suburbs now. But usually it is attempts to equip solar system to traditional architecture building, forms and orienting of roof and facades of which is not suitable for solar water collectors and photovoltaic placing. At the same time owners as a rule do not think about passive solar design features and open glazing and winter gardens to windy and twilight parts of horizon compensate this by growth of solar panels number.

Meanwhile take into account Chinese immigration problem the Russian government plans are to organize third wave of settlers to provide twofold growth of Russian language population in nearest future. So it is very attractive for people in charge to economize building materials to give the new settlers low price single family wooden shield houses without sufficient heat insulation and solar technology. It is not mistake – first 400 low price buildings village “Radovo” will be appear on the north part of the hills in Vladivostok suburbs during next two – three years. Though get solar technologies only to existing houses in south part of Russian Far East we can economize 71 000 ton of organic fuel. .

For future residential areas in south of Russian Far East Architectural institute FESTU (architect Pavel A. Kazantsev) and Non traditional energetic laboratory of IMTP FEBRAS (active solar system design: doctor Oleg P. Kovalev with leading engineer Alexandr V. Volkov) propose perspective model of low price single family solar house “Solar-5” using passive and active solar technology methods based on simple longitudinal wooden frame construction. It is not masterpiece but ordinary house of suburban building. Owners will have three living area houses type change the frame number from six to eight: 78,7 sq. m.; 93,7 sq. m.; 108,7 sq. m

Do not examine details of design decisions note that during the five most cold winter days (air temperature 24C below zero) 38% of heating requirements compensate by passive solar design only. In usually winter conditions (-14C) direct gain of thermal mass and Thromb wall compensate 57% of heating requirements. Including solar water collectors during all winter heating season from November to March inclusive we can compensate 81% of heating requirements. Double heating system design for house also – 6 kilowatt electric power boiler. Characteristic feature of “Solar-5” house is submission of its form not only season changes of sun coordinates but the directions of winter wind also. Inclination of roof to winter wind, north facade without window and heat insulation with internal heat reflecting surface allow to reduce heat loss almost on 37% compare with traditional houses that usually building in our region m

Choose solar design we understand that solar dwelling is long distance “runner”. If usually design houses are “sprinters” – cheaply and at once moment, the same square solar house is 15-25% more expensive than wooden shield houses and be worth while (repay) after 5 – 7 years. Economical wooden shield house after 5-6 hours without boiler heating became a “fridge” in winter conditions of Russian Far East. But in the consequence of its primary low price wooden shield house seems more preferable for large investition in building in regional economy situation, when middle level of monthly pay (wages) approximately is 290 euro.

It is English language version of article, published in ECO. – Italian magazine with the great help of Silvia Zaccaria, Torino

diploma project


Green design course, Architectural institute FESTU, Vladivostok, Russia



Since 1999 in Architectural Institute* of FESTU, Vladivostok, Russia, students began to study a practical course of sustainable design as a logical continuation of the "Architectural climatology" lectures for third year students. Besides lectures today it is possible to say about system of the sustainable design tasks for future architects - five steps of green design education from study of theoretical base to diploma project.

The course begin from 9 lectures first of all examine bioclimatic design principles as basic principles of ecological or sustainable architecture. The course take into attention climate conditions of Russian Far East region: dry, very cold and sunny winter with strong wind; humid, windy and cold spring almost before July; humid and stuffy summer with strong wind and rain when the tropical hurricane came. Basic topics of my course are: Architectural examine of climatic conditions; Wind and build forms; Energy-efficiency design and solar architecture; Traditional architecture of different climate zones. First compulsory task for third year students carry out after lectures finished is design for open space the simple architectural forms with wind break and solar heating possibility. For example students design 10-12 children placing Cover-solarium for kindergarten territory. The aim of this task is to examine connections between changes of open architectural form and microclimatic conditions in its borders. Geometrical parameters of architectural form changes can change direction and speed of the wind as well as concentrate and reflect direct solar rays. As a result the comfortable microclimate parameters of open human space in cold and warm season will achieve. It is just what I want my students understand before than they continue their design for dwelling and public spaces. .

Design of low storey dwelling with passive solar heating (Direct gain, Indirect gain and Isolated gain methods) and solar hot water collectors is second compulsory practice task for four year students. Project of three-five floors building reconstruction with design of architectural forms and interior views of “Solar attic floor”, with previously calculation of passive and active solar system, is the volume of task for student in spring semester. The Non-traditional energetic laboratory of Institute Marine Technology Problems FEBRAS staff are attract for consultation during this lessons. Appreciate of students "Solar dwelling" design are confirm by participation at top 50 world professional exhibition RENEXPO®2005 by invitation of organizing committee. From the beginning of 2005 "Ecology tower for Vladivostok" design continue the sustainable design education compulsory tasks for five year students. Studying and modify of famous Ken Yang "Ecology skyscraper" conception for our cold climate conditions students apply not only bioclimatic but sustainable design methods for their projects. So this task is key task for crossing to sustainable or green structures design from bioclimatic educational level. .

"Ecology tower" educational design task was examined during international workshop collaboration with Ph.D. candidate of Tokyo University ISS Martin Gomes Tagle for different places in the world climate conditions: Mexico, Tokyo, Sydney, Santo-Domingo and Arizona at November 2005. The international sustainable design workshop tradition continues at May 2006 as Scott peninsula solar dwelling design in the framework of “ArhIdea” festival in Vladivostok. Teachers and students teams from five Asian-Pacific region countries took part in. Alternative task in spring semester 2006 for five year student was “Museum of Nature for California” design. As we recognize that bionic is part of Sustainable architecture main stream to study the connections between bioclimatic and bionic forms in design process are very important. So in 2006 US Nature museum of California student competition gave an opportunity for in differ from Russia Far East nature conditions.

Sustainable diploma projects subjects are very different as a rule but connect with regional ecology and nature preserving. There are such projects as "Conception of marine museum center design for Far Eastern Maritime Preserve - Architectural implant" by Julia Korkina (2001), "Conception of renovation of Botanical garden-institute FEBRAS" near Vladivostok by Elena Danilova and Alexandra Vagner (2003), or "Sustainable design center for Vladivostok" by Tatiana Belousova, "Ginseng land” ecology tourism center" by Ekaterina Lejnenko or "Landscape-ethnography center" by Natalija Galanina in 2005. 2007 graduates design “Sun service” astrophysical educational and research center”, “Marine research center of biotechnologies and submarine engineering for FEBRAS”; “Vladivostok SOLAR BRIDGE” marine sustainable dwelling” (You can see SOLAR BRIDGE at; “De-Freez landscape center” and others. .

After finishing of theoretical basis sustainable projects carry out by students of Design faculty finished their studying at 2001 - Single family solar house and diploma project; at 2003 - Cover-solarium for kindergarten, Coastal solarium center for Vladivostok and diploma project; at 2005 and future 2007 graduate students - Cover-solarium for kindergarten (third year), Solar attic floor or Solar dwelling complex (four year), Ecology tower for Vladivostok (five year students) and diploma projects. With this year students there are more than 60 “green” graduates. The main thesis of sustainable design course made a report at Third World Ecological educational congress 3WEEC (poster session, Torino, Italy in 2005); The World sustainable building conference SB05 (Tokyo, 2005); and RENEXPO®2006 exhibition (Augsburg, Germany; with REECO great helps). This education course may be evaluate as private initiative and have no support from local and federal authorities.

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Students sustainable design examples web: -2005-06 design; -solar house 2001 design; -graduates 2001-03 design

* Institute of Architecture, Design and Arts since 2006




Historically the Vladivostok urban area for relaxation had formed along the coast of the Amur Gulf covered from humid South-Eastern winds by the mountain relief. More favourable insolation summer conditions of this coast, it’s closeness to the city buildings and the transport, from the end of XIX promoted the intensive setting on the beach territory. The buildings situated at the beach zone stretched into a line from South-West to North-East following the coastal stripe direction. From the beginning of September when Northern winds began to prevail, thought the weather was sunny, the number of vacationists decreased. The exception was the plan solution of the “DINAMO” beach perpendicularly turned to a coastal line. Old residents of Vladivostok remember comfortable conditions of warmed up by the Sun and protected from the winds beachfront deck, oriented to the Southern sector of the horizont. In 1985 the beach was reconstructed. New building up is stretched along the coast and “barge”, blown through by all the winds, had “tied up” at it. Now this barge is half decomposed.

In our opinion, more favorable microclimatic conditions could be created by placing an this area the beach-solarium. It should have a from of a sea shell opened towards the Sun and, thus, protected from cold autumn winds owing to its aerodynamic shape. The following basic principles of bioclimatic architecture represented in the projects are recommended for designing the Amur Gulf coastal line building-up: - orienting the beach-deck crosswise the coastal line, from the West to the East, which in addition to the bioclimatic effect could increase the recreation capacity of the beach zone; - forming the wind-break of the beach-deck at the Northern side; - providing the additional warming-up of the deck by means of reflected sun radiation during the period of low solstice; - forming the solarium at the high level distanced of the cold water at off-season period; - the aeration of the low stage with Southern winds by means of the openwork windbreak; - the use of “warm” materials for trimming the decks and walls, the use of heat capacity materials for parapets and breastwals.

The work is performed in the framework of “The Architectural Climatology” course by students Alexandra Vagner, Elena Danilova, Irina Nogovitsina and Anna Typkina of the groups A-721 ARCHI FESTU in 2001, tutor Ph.D. Pavel A.Kazantsev.


model by Irina Nogovitsina

All right reserved: FESTU ® Pavel A. Kazantsev ® 03.08.2008



(фрагмент статьи из сборника VI Всероссийской конференции МГУ им. Ломоносова «Возобновляемые источники энергии» 28.11.2008 г).

Казанцев Павел Анатольевич, Институт архитектуры, искусств и дизайна АРХИД ДВГТУ, Владивосток.

В последние пять лет федеральный центр осознал, что те процессы, которые происходят на Дальнем Востоке России, результатом которых является отток русскоязычного населения в европейскую часть страны, неизбежно ведут к отторжению региона. Чтобы переломить тенденцию, были выбраны «точки» опережающего экономического роста, и одним из таких районов опережающего развития назван Владивосток, и в целом Южное Приморье, как наиболее комфортная по климатическим условиям и экономически развитая зона.

Сейчас рассматриваются разные градостроительные концепции развития региона, принимается новый Генеральный план развития Владивостока. Но, по мнению автора, в них явно упускается ряд существенных проблем развития нового российского мегаполиса.

В его нынешних границах Владивосток занимает вытянутый с севера на юг узкий и гористый полуостров Муравьева-Амурского. Особенности топографии и микроклимата предопределили линейное развитие города от сравнительно компактного центра на север, по западному побережью полуострова. Наличие практически только одной транспортной связи между южными и северными районами города, его пригородом и аэропортом породило транспортные проблемы и интенсивное загрязнение воздуха. Стесненная рельефом сверхплотная застройка территории за последние 30-35 лет, привела к практически полной вырубке зеленых массивов в черте города и значительной экологической деградации его жилой среды.

Но, как результат воздействия региональных социальных и экономических факторов, определявших до недавнего времени тенденции развития Владивостока, предложения нового генерального плана в значительной степени идут в русле тенденций экстенсивного развития за счет застройки зеленых массивов – легких города, и прибрежных рекреационных территорий (Зеленый угол, бухта Патрокл, п-ов Де-Фриз, п-ов Саперный).

В развитых странах сегодня здания потребляют почти половину расходуемой энергии. Для ее производства используют огромные объемы невозобновляемых ресурсов, загрязняя атмосферу и сокращая пригодную для обитания человека среду. Но традиционные офисные «башни», торговые центры и многоэтажные жилые «пластины» мегаполисов, требуя все больше энергии, не позволяют человеку снизить ее потребление до разумных пределов. Следуя по пути «сверхурбанизации», как многие крупные города Тихоокеанского региона: Гонконг, Шанхай, Пусан…, мы будем обречены на импорт устаревающих технологий и ноу-хау, в т.ч. в градостроительной культуре и культуре формирования антропогенной среды. В немалой степени под воздействием внешних факторов - взгляд на Россию как сырьевой придаток развитых стран и растущих Азиатских экономик, поставляющей для стран АТР сырье или продукты его первичной переработки - мы стоим перед опасностью сформировать региональный рынок сбыта архитектурных секонд-хэнд идей и технологий.

Деградация окружающей среды сегодня – глобальная проблема, успех или провал в решении которой определит перспективы сохранения цивилизации, это общепризнано. Поэтому, отвечая на вызов третьего тысячелетия, необходимо предложить концепцию развития Владивостока как модели городского поселения третьего тысячелетия, основанного на принципах устойчивого развития. Только разработка перспективной модели городского экопоселения третьего тысячелетия – как вызов современным тенденциям и традициям – будет способна привлечь передовые отечественные и зарубежные интеллектуальные силы, инновационные технологии, стимулировать разработку, внедрение и развитие новых технологий и идей в регионе и их последующий экспорт в страны АТР.

Главное направление развития проекта «Владивосток АТЭС 2012» следовало бы сформулировать как создание площадки реализации инновационных идей и технологий для стран АТР и России, имеющей целью сформировать и реализовать модель устойчивого развития городских поселений третьего тысячелетия.

Владивосток будущего – город, включающий естественные ландшафты в городские пространства, город в котором тепловой комфорт улиц и зданий обеспечивается за счет заимствования природных форм с минимальным использованием инженерных средств климатического контроля; город «без отходов» на основе внедрения ресурсосберегающих технологий и возобновляемых источников энергии; город как часть уникальных природных комплексов региона, обеспечивающий их ресурсосберегающее освоение на принципах устойчивого развития.

Реализация принципа «интегрированного в окружающую среду города» особенно важна для Приморского края, с его еще в сравнительной степени нетронутыми ресурсами Уссурийской тайги, сельхозугодиями, находящимися в значительной части вне зоны загрязнения мегаполисов (центральное Приморье) и прибрежными бухтами с перспективой развития марикультуры, учитывая скачкообразный рост спроса на экологически чистые продукты питания и лекарства в странах региона (Китай, Япония, Корея). Такой подход еще дает шанс в развитии не только Владивостока, а всего региона южного и центрального Приморья как модельного региона устойчивого развития человечества в третьем тысячелетии.

Размещено 28.12.2008.